Analysing metadiscourse markers in your text

This tool analyses the Metadiscourse markers used in your text. Metadiscourse markers (such as ‘firstly’ and ‘in conclusion’) refer explicitly to aspects of the organisation of a text, or indicate a writer’s stance towards the text’s content or towards the reader (Hyland 2004a: 109). They are important markers in more academic text styles.

Text Inspector analyses thirteen categories of metadiscourse marker:

This is Hyland’s description of the markers (note that Boosters is the same as Emphatics):

Metadiscourse markers used in Text Inspector

Below is the full list of Metadiscourse markers as used in Text Inspector. Remember that you also need to take account of the context to be sure that the term identified by Text Inspector is in fact being used as the discourse marker you were expecting.

Announce Goals (Frame marker)

  • my purpose
  • the aim
  • I intend
  • I seek
  • I wish
  • I argue
  • I propose
  • I suggest
  • I discuss
  • I would like to
  • I will focus on
  • we will focus on
  • I will emphasise
  • we will emphasise
  • my goal is
  • in this section
  • in this chapter
  • here I do this
  • here I will

Code glosses

  • for example
  • for instance
  • e.g.
  • i.e.
  • that is
  • that is to say
  • namely
  • in other words
  • this means
  • which means
  • in fact
  • Viz.
  • specifically
  • such as
  • put another way
  • known as
  • defined as
  • called

Endophorics

  • see
  • noted
  • discussed below
  • discussed above
  • discussed earlier
  • discussed later
  • discussed before
  • section
  • chapter
  • fig
  • figure
  • table
  • example
  • page

Hedges

  • almost
  • apparently
  • appear to be
  • approximately
  • assume
  • believed
  • certain extent
  • certain level
  • certain amount
  • could
  • couldn’t
  • doubt
  • essentially
  • estimate
  • frequently
  • generally
  • in general
  • indicate
  • largely
  • likely
  • mainly
  • may
  • maybe
  • might
  • mostly
  • often
  • perhaps
  • plausible
  • possible
  • possibly
  • presumably
  • probable
  • probably
  • relatively
  • seems
  • sometimes
  • somewhat
  • suggest
  • suspect
  • unlikely
  • uncertain
  • unclear
  • usually
  • would
  • wouldn’t
  • little
  • not understood

Logical connectives

  • and
  • but
  • therefore
  • thereby
  • so
  • so as to
  • in addition
  • similarly
  • equally
  • likewise
  • moreover
  • furthermore
  • in contrast
  • by contrast
  • as a result
  • the result is
  • result in
  • since
  • because
  • consequently
  • as a consequence
  • accordingly
  • on the other hand
  • on the contrary
  • however
  • besides
  • also
  • whereas
  • while
  • although
  • even though
  • though
  • yet
  • nevertheless
  • nonetheless
  • hence
  • thus
  • leads to
  • or

Relational markers

  • incidentally
  • by the way
  • determine
  • consider
  • imagine
  • let
  • let us
  • let’s
  • lets
  • note
  • notice
  • our
  • recall
  • our
  • us
  • we
  • you
  • your
  • one’s
  • assume
  • think about

Attitude markers

  • admittedly
  • I agree
  • amazingly
  • appropriately
  • correctly
  • curiously
  • disappointing
  • disagree
  • even
  • fortunately
  • have to
  • hopefully
  • important
  • importantly
  • interest
  • interestingly
  • prefer
  • pleased
  • must
  • ought
  • prefer
  • remarkable
  • surprisingly
  • unfortunate
  • unfortunately
  • unusually
  • understandably

Emphatics (Boosters)

  • actually
  • always
  • apparent
  • I believe
  • certain that
  • certainly
  • certainty
  • clearly
  • it is clear
  • conclusively
  • decidedly
  • definitely
  • demonstrate
  • determine
  • doubtless
  • essential
  • establish
  • in fact
  • the fact that
  • indeed
  • know
  • it is known that
  • must
  • never
  • no doubt
  • beyond doubt
  • obvious
  • obviously
  • of course
  • prove
  • show
  • sure
  • true
  • undoubtedly
  • well known
  • won’t
  • even if
  • should
  • by far

Evidentials

  • according to
  • cite
  • cites
  • quote
  • established
  • said
  • says
  • points out
  • points to
  • point to
  • point out
  • argues
  • argue
  • claim
  • claims
  • believe
  • believes
  • suggests
  • suggest
  • show
  • shows
  • proves
  • prove
  • demonstrates
  • demonstrate
  • found that
  • studies
  • research
  • literature

Label stages (Frame marker)

  • to conclude
  • in conclusion
  • to sum up
  • in sum
  • summarise
  • summarize
  • overall
  • on the whole
  • all in all
  • so far
  • thus far
  • to repeat

Person markers

  • I
  • we
  • me
  • my
  • our
  • mine

Sequencing (Frame marker)

  • to start with
  • first
  • firstly
  • second
  • secondly
  • third
  • thirdly
  • fourth
  • fourthly
  • fifty
  • fifthly
  • next
  • to begin
  • last
  • lastly
  • finally
  • subsequently
  • two
  • three
  • four
  • five

Topic shifts (Frame marker)

  • well
  • to move on
  • to look more closely
  • to come back to
  • in regard to
  • with regard to
  • to digress